We might have began it this manner, with R1, R2 and R4 having shared control, however this build up makes it easier to understand. A network administrator defines a consortium X1 that incorporates two members, the organizations R1 and R2. This consortium definition is stored in the network configuration NC4, and shall be used at the next stage of community improvement. CA1 and CA2 are the respective Certificate Authorities for these organizations. In a “Peer-to-Peer” system, all individuals interact instantly with one another with equal authority.